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《包豪斯宣言》

包豪斯宣言,1919.4 ,格罗皮乌斯(Walter Gropius)

一切创造活动的终极目标就是建筑!为建筑进行装饰一度是美术最高尚的功能,而且美术也是伟大的建筑不可或缺的伙伴。如今,它们自鸣得意地离群索居,而可能从这种局面里拯救它们的唯一出路,就是让一切手工艺人自觉地进行团结合作。建筑师、画家和雕塑家必须重新认识到,无论是作为整体,还是它的各个局部,建筑都具备着合成的特性。有了这种认识以后,他们的作品就会充满真正的建筑精神。而作为“沙龙艺术”,这种精神已经荡然无存。

老式的艺术院校没有能力来创造这种统一:说真的,既然艺术是教不会的,他们又怎么能够做到这一点呢?学校必须重新被吸纳进作坊里去。图案设计师和实用艺术家的天地里只有制图和绘画,它最终必须变回一个建造作品的世界。比如说,现在有一个年轻人在创造活动中感到其乐融融,如果让他像前人一样,一入行就先学会一门手艺,那么,不出活儿的“艺术家”就不会再为不合时宜的艺术性而横遭谴责,因为他还可以把自己的技巧用在一门手艺上,他可以借此做出伟大的作品来。

建筑师们、画家们、雕塑家们,我们必须回归手工艺!因为所谓的“职业艺术”这种东西并不存在。艺术家与工匠之间并没有根本的不同。艺术家就是高级的工匠。由于天恩照耀,在出乎意料的某个灵光乍现的倏忽间,艺术会不经意地从他的手中绽放出来,但是,每一位艺术家都首先必须具备手工艺的基础。正是在工艺技巧中,蕴涵着创造力最初的源泉。

因此,让我们来创办一个新型的手工艺人行会,取消工匠与艺术家的等级差异,再也不要用它树起妄自尊大的藩篱!让我们一同期待、构思并且创造出未来的新建筑,用它把一切——建筑与雕塑与绘画——都组合在一个单一的形式里,有朝一日,他将会从百万工人的手中冉冉地升上天堂,水晶般清澈地象征着未来的新信念。

1919年利奥尼·费宁格为“包豪斯宣言和计划”所做的封面插画。

包豪斯附注:

《包豪斯宣言》是这位包豪斯创办者兼校长格罗皮乌斯在1919年4月写的,它的主导思想是“我们都应该回到工艺上去”,他盼望着“未来的新结构,这种新结构将像一种新信念的水晶那样,通过工人的手伸向天空”。在格罗皮乌斯看来,艺术家和工匠之间并没有本质的不同,虽然艺术无法教会,不过工艺和手工技巧是能够传授的。他的学校是以工艺为基础的,是真实的劳作的世界中的一个组成部分;他把教师称为师傅,把学生称为学徒,把以往互不相乾的若乾学科和手段结合在一起,就能创造出一个综合的整体的艺术作品。格罗皮乌斯说:“未来几年将会显示出,手工艺将是我们这些艺术家的救星,我们将不再是手工艺的旁观者,我们将是他们的一部分。”

从1919年到1933年间,包豪斯的教师中在不同时期都有它的杰出人物。上个世纪20年代必不可少的事情是要维持包豪斯作为一个实验室的存在,在那里,任何一种观点和构想都能得到实践的检验——从大规模建造的住宅原型到奥斯卡·施列默尔设计的实验性芭蕾舞,从格罗皮乌斯在为德绍的包豪斯新大楼所作的透明包围式设计到莫霍利·纳吉往淡色的蒸汽云上投射电影图像的计划,或者还有康定斯基和保罗·克利从在画布上落下的圆点起再重新思考绘画过程……如今,可能任何一间可以称作现代的办公室都会有马塞尔·布鲁艾或者密斯·凡·德罗设计的椅子;每一所艺术院校之所以能给学生开课教授材料、色彩理论与三维设计的内容,都或多或少地要归功于多年以前德国的那场教育实验。钢管框架的椅子、可调节的台灯、住宅建筑里部分或全部采用的预制构件等,这些都是获益于包豪斯在设计领域掀起的革命。如果没有包豪斯,我们很难想象现代环境会是怎样的一番模样。

虽然格罗皮乌斯一直否认有所谓的包豪斯风格存在,强调他所追求的是一种对创造力的态度,目的就是要追求多样性。但在大众的想象中,包豪斯这个名字始终是和一种现代装饰风格相联系的,一种可以用“几何形的、功能主义的或者运用原色和现代材料”等字眼来描述的包豪斯风格。事实上,格罗皮乌斯希望的包豪斯是能够不断设计未来,建造包豪斯学校就是想囊括整个人类的活动范围——从最崇高和最神圣的到最平凡和最现实的。格罗皮乌斯试验着新的建筑形式或者日用品形式,任何一个人想要得到一个包豪斯衣橱、一张包豪斯信笺、一段包豪斯织物或者一卷包豪斯墙纸都有可能获得。尽管内部有许多分歧和矛盾,包豪斯希望给每个人、每个地方带来更加美好的生活。

包豪斯宣言英文原文:

Bauhaus manifesto 1919

The complete building is the final aim of the visual arts. Their noblest function was once the decoration of buildings.Today they exist in isolation, from which they all can be rescued only through the conscious, cooperative effort of all craftsmen. Architects, painters, and sculptors must recognize anew the composite character of a building as an entity. Only then will their work be imbued with the architectonic spirit that it lost when it became a “salon art.” The old art schools were unable to achieve this unity and, after all, how could they, since art cannot be taught? They must be absorbed once more by the workshop.

This world of designers and decorators, who only draw and paint, must finally become one of builders again. If the young person who feels within him the urge to create again, as in former times, begins his career by learning a handicraft, the unproductive artist will, in the future, no longer remain condemned to the creation of mediocre art, because his
skill will redound the benefit of the handicrafts, in which he will be able to produce things of excellence.

Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all turn to the crafts! Art is not a profession.There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman.The artist is an exalted craftsman. In rare moments of inspiration, moments beyond the control of his will, the grace of heaven may cause his work to blossom into art. But proficiency in his craft is essential to every artist. Therein lies a source of creative imagination.

Let us create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions that raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist. Together let us conceive and create the new
building of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hands of a million workers, like the crystal symbol of a new faith.

WALTER GROPIUS

The National Bauhaus at Weimar grew out of the merger of the former Grandducal Saxonian School of Graphic Arts and the Grandducal Saxonian School of Arts and Crafts,with the addition of a new department for architecture.

Objectives of the Bauhaus.

The Bauhaus strives to reunite arts and crafts – sculpture, painting, applied art, and handicrafts – as the permanent elements of a new architecture.

The ultimate, though distant aim of the Bauhaus is the Einheitskunstwerk (Uniform Work of Art) – the great construction that recognizes no boundaries between monumental and decorative art.

The Bauhaus wants to educate architects, painters and sculptors of all sorts to become qualified craftsmen or independent creative artists. It also aspires to establish a study group of leading artists who will be able to design buildings in their entirety – from rough brickwork to completion, including embellishments and furnishings that reflect a similar spirit and unity.

Principles of the Bauhaus.

Art in itself is beyond all methods; it cannot be taught. However, one can teach a trade. Architects, painters, sculptors are artisans in the true sense of the word, therefore the thorough mechanical training of all such students in workshops is an indispensable foundation for all creative activities. (Their own workshops should be completed radually,and apprenticeships should be entered into with outside workshops.) The school is the servant of the workshop.

One day the two will merge into one. Therefore there are no teachers and pupils at the Bauhaus, but masters, journeymen, and apprentices.

Teaching methods at the Bauhaus.

The manner of teaching arises from the nature of the workshop: organic form developed from mechanical knowledge; elimination of all rigidity; emphasis on creativity;freedom of individuality, but strict scholarship.

Masters and journeymen are examined according to the regulations of the guilds by masters of the Bauhaus or outside masters from the trade guilds. Students participate in the projects of the masters.

There is common planning of extensive building projects – popular and cultural buildings – with utopian aims. Allmasters and students collaborate on these projects, aiming for eventual harmony of all elements and parts pertaining to the construction. There is continuous contact with the country’s leading experts on trade and industry, as well as with the public, through exhibitions and other events.

New experiments arecarried on to solve the problem of exhibiting two- and threedimensional art in an architectonic frame. Finally, friendly relations are fostered between masters and students outside of the work by means of theater parties, lectures, poetry readings, concerts, and fancy dress balls.

Scope of instructions at the Bauhaus.

Teaching at the Bauhaus embraces all practical and scientific fields of creative production: architecture, painting, sculpture, and related handicrafts.Students are taught a trade as well as drawing and painting, and also scientific theory.

1. Workshops – be it Bauhaus workshops or others, where students are obligated by contracts – comprise:
A. Sculptors, stonemasons, stucco workers, wood sculptors, potters, plasterers;
B. Blacksmiths, locksmiths, founders;
C. Carpenters;
D. Scene painters, glass painters, mosaic workers, enamel workers;
E. Etchers, wood engravers, lithographers, printers of fine art, engravers;
F. Weavers. The foundation of the Bauhaus teaching is instruction in a trade. Each student has to learn a trade.

2. Instructions in drawing and painting include:
A. Free sketching from memory and imagination;
B. Drawing and painting of heads, life models, and animals;
C. Drawing and painting of landscapes, figures, plants, and stilI life;
D. Compositions;
E. Execution of mural paintings, plaques, and decorated chests;
G. Lettering;
H. Construction and projection drawing; Design of exteriors, gardens and interior architecture;
J. Design of furniture and commodities.

3. Instructions in the scientific and theoretical arts include:
A. Art history – emphasizing not a history of styles but the understanding of historical working methods and techniques;
B. Science of materials;
C. Anatomy – with live models;
D. Physical and chemical theory of colors;
E. Scientific methods of painting;
F. Fundamentals of bookkeeping, drawing-up of contracts, contracts for the building of houses;
G. Single lectures on subjects of general interest in the fields of art and science. Workdistribution Plan

The teaching is divided into three sections:
(1)instruction for apprentices;
(2)instruction for journeymen; and
(3)instruction for junior masters.

The details of education within the framework of the general program and the workdistribution plan, which has to be newly set up for each semester, are left to the judgement of the individual masters.

In order to provide the students with the most multifaceted, extensive technical and artistic education, the work-distribution plan is so arranged that each prospective architect,painter, or sculptor may also participate in some of the other courses.

Enrollment and Tuition. Space permitting, any person whose basic training is considered sufficient by the master counsel is admitted regardless of age or sex. The annual tuition fee is 180 marks (with the increased earnings of the Bauhaus, this should be gradually eliminated). In addition a single admission fee of twenty marks has to be paid.

Foreigners pay double. Inquiries are to be made to the Secretariat of the National Bauhaus at Weimar.

April 1919. The Administration of the National Bauhaus at Weimar.

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